|National Name||Republica de bhutan|
|Bhutan country code||+975|
|President||Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa (2019)|
|Land Area||38,394 km²|
|Total Area||38,394 km²|
|Population||7.63 lakhs (2019)|
|Infant Mortality rate||23.8/1000|
|Life Expectancy||71.46 years|
|Literacy Rate||66.6% (2020 est)|
Stone tools, weapons, elephants, fossils, archaeological remains and remains of large stone structures provide evidence that Bhutan was inhabited as early as 2000 BC, although there are no existing records from that time. Historians have theorized that the state of Lhomon (literally, "southern darkness"), or Monyul ("Dark Land", a reference to the Monpa, an ethnic group in Bhutan & Arunachal Pradesh) may have survived between 500 BC and AD 600. The names Lhomon Tsendenjong (Sandalwood Country), and Lhomon Khashi, or Southern Mon (country of four approaches), have been referred in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles.
Bhutan lies on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas, landlocked between the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and the Indian states of Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam to west and south and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh in the east. It is present between latitudes 26°N and 29°N, and longitudes 88°E and 93°E. The land consists mostly of steep and high mountains on sides by a network of swift rivers that form deep valleys before draining into the Indian plains. The steepness rises from 200 m (660 ft) in the southern foothills to more than 7,000 m (23,000 ft). This great geographical diversity combined with equally diverse climate conditions adds depth to Bhutan's outstanding range of biodiversity and ecosystems.
It is estimated that between two-thirds and three-quarters of the Bhutanese population follow Vajrayana Buddhism, which is also the state followed religion. About one-quarter to one-third are the followers of Hinduism. Other religions are followed by less than 1% of the population. The current legal framework, in principle guarantees freedom of religion; proselytism, however, is forbidden by a royal government taken decision .The national language is Dzongkha (Bhutanese), one of 53 languages in the Tibetan language family. The script, locally called Chhokey (literally, "Dharma language"), is similar to classical Tibetan. In Bhutan's education practice, English is the medium of instruction, while Dzongkha is taught as the national language. Ethnologue lists 24 languages currently spoken in Bhutan, all of them in the Tibeto-Burman family, except Nepali, an Indo-Aryan language.