|National Name||Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan|
|National Holiday||Independence Day, August 19|
|Afghanistan country code||+93|
|President||Ashraf Ghani (2014)|
|Land Area||652,860 km²|
|Total Area||652,860 km²|
|Population||3.8 crores (2019)|
|Infant Mortality rate||49.6/1000|
|Life Expectancy||64.49 year (2019)|
|Density||60 per Km2|
|Literacy Rate||55.00%. (2018)|
|List of cities||Kabul- Ghazni- Balkh- Bamyan- Herat- Laghman- Jalalabad- Kandahar- Lashkargah- Zaranj- Kunduz|
Afghanistan, now called the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a land surrounded by mountains on all sides is located at the heart of south-central Asia. It joins southern and Eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle East. Afghanistan has long been a land of great interest to the empire builders and great armies have tried to capture it during the past. The modern boundaries of Afghanistan were established in the 19th century after a tough war between the British and the Russians. The army of Afghanistan never gave up and so today there exists such a rich history.
Excavations of the Afghan soil in 1966 suggest that early humans started living in the place, what is now called Afghanistan, some 52000 years ago.Carbon-14 dating method of the caves suggests that it is 34000 years old. Urbanization may have started around 3000 BCE.
Zoroastrianism was the religion predominately found in those areas and was followed by a large number of people over there. However, other religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism flourished during the later years.
The Indus valley civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that dates back to (3300-1300 BCE) extending from northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. There are several Indus valley sites found around Afghanistan.But the most predominant areas are Oxus River near shortugai and Mundigak.
Some of the invaders in the history of Afghanistan include the Mauryan empire, the Greek Empire , Rashidun Caliphate , The Mongol empire , the Timurid empire , the Mughal empire various Persian associated empires, the Sikh Empire , the British Empire , the Soviet Union , and most recently a coalition force of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization .
Afghanistan has been a place of great importance throughout history. The land once served as a gateway to India to carry out trade from the ancient Silk Road to Mediterranean China. Since many empires influenced the culture of Afghanistan, there exists a varied diversity of people from all places over there.